Sojournix Publications

Reference Publications

NK3 Antagonism – Clinical Validation and Genetic Association in VMS

  • Depypere et al., “Clinical evaluation of the NK3 receptor antagonist fezolinetant (a.k.a. ESN364) for the treatment of menopausal hot flashes,” EMAS2017: Late Breaking Science Abstracts

  • Prague et al., “Neurokinin 3 receptor antagonism rapidly improves vasomotor symptoms with sustained duration of action,” Menopause (2018) 25(8):862-869

  • Skorupskaite et al., “Neurokinin 3 Receptor Antagonism Reveals Roles for Neurokinin B in the Regulation of Gonadotropin Secretion and Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women,” Neuroendocrinology (2018) 106:148–157

  • Crandall et al., “Association of genetic variation in the tachykinin receptor 3 locus with hot flashes and night sweats in the Women’s Health Initiative Study,” Menopause (2017) 24(3): 252–261

  • Fezolinetant Phase 2a clinical results:, study number 2015-002578-20

NK3 Antagonists – Pharmacodynamic Markers in Men

  • Fraser et al., “The NK3 Receptor Antagonist ESN364 Suppresses Sex Hormones in Men and Women,” J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2016) 101: 417– 426

  • Skorupskaite et al., “Neurokinin 3 receptor antagonism decreases gonadotropin and testosterone secretion in healthy men,” Clin Endocrinol (2017) 87(6):748-756

  • NIH NCATS Summary for Talnetant

NK3 Mechanism of Action in VMS

  • Mittelman-Smith et al., “Neurokinin 3 Receptor-Expressing Neurons in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Modulate Heat-Dissipation Effectors in the Female Rat,” Endocrinology (2015) 156(7):2552-62

  • Dacks et al., “Activation of Neurokinin 3 Receptors in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Decreases Core Temperature in the Rat,” Endocrinology (2011) 152: 4894–4905

  • Rance and Young, “Hypertrophy and Increased Gene Expression of Neurons Containing Neurokinin-B and Substance-P Messenger Ribonucleic Acids in the Hypothalami of Postmenopausal Women*,” Endocrinology (1991) 128(5):2239-47

  • Rance et al., “Modulation of body temperature and LH secretion by hypothalamic KNDy (kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin) neurons: A novel hypothesis on the mechanism of hot flushes,” Front Neuroendocrinol (2013) 34(3) 

  • Mittelman-Smith et al., “Role for kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in cutaneous vasodilatation and the estrogen modulation of body temperature,” PNAS (2012) 109(48):19846-51

Vasomotor Symptoms – Patients and Epidemiology

  • Williams et al., “Frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms among peri- and postmenopausal women in the United States,” Climacteric (2008) 11:32–4

  • Avis et al., “Duration of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms Over the Menopause Transition,” JAMA Intern Med. (2015) 175(4): 531–539

  • Gartoulla et al., “Moderate to severe vasomotor and sexual symptoms remain problematic for women aged 60 to 65 years,”  Menopause (2018) 25(11):1331-1338

  • Williams et al., “Healthcare seeking and treatment for menopausal symptoms in the United States,” Maturitas (2007) 58 348–358

Hormone Therapy – Trends, Labels, and Guidelines

  • Steinkellner et al., “A decade of postmenopausal hormone therapy prescribing in the United States: long-term effects of the Women’s Health Initiative,” Menopause, (2012) 19(6):616-21

  • Deeks et al., “Risk perception in women: a focus on menopause,” Menopause (2008) 15(2):304-9

  • Ettinger et al., “Effect of the Women’s Health Initiative on Women’s Decisions to Discontinue Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy,” Obstet Gynecol (2003) 102(6):1225-32

  • US Preventative Services Task Force, “Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions in Postmenopausal Women,” JAMA (2017) 318(22):2224-2233

  • Prempro label,  (accessed Feb 4, 2019)

  • Stagnitti and Lefkowitz, “Trends in Hormone Replacement Therapy Drugs Utilization and Expenditures for Adult Women in the U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population, 2001-2008”

  • ACOG Practice Bulletin “Management of Menopausal Symptoms,” Obstet Gynecol. (2014) 123(1):202-16

  • “The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society,” Menopause (2017) 24(7):728-753

Drug-Induced Vasomotor Symptoms

  • Morales et al., “Acute effects of tamoxifen and third-generation aromatase inhibitors on menopausal symptoms of breast cancer patients,” Anti-Cancer Drugs (2004) 15(8):753-60

  • Karling et al., “Prevalence and Duration of Hot Flushes After Surgical or Medical Castration in Men With Prostatic Carcinoma,” J Urol. (1994) 152(4):1170-3